| ||Definition:|| ||A group of diseases caused by parasitic protozoans of the genus <EM>Leishmania.</EM> It is transmitted by sandflies and are, in general, infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and certain internal organs by the parasites. Three major types of leishmaniasis occur in humans - cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral: |
- In cutaneous leishmaniasis, also known as aleppo boil, aleppo button, Bagdad boil, Baure ulcer, Delhi boil, oriental sore, and tropical sore, the parasite causes lesions on the face, arms, and legs which begin as inflamed bumps and can turn into skin ulcers that take up to two years to heal.
- In mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, also known as American leishmaniasis, Chiclero ulcer, espundia, forest yaws, and uta, the parasite invades the mucous membranes and causes ulcers in the nose, mouth, and parts of the sinuses. This can result in lesions and deformity of the face.
- In visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala azar (a Hindi term meaning "black fever") or dumdum fever, the parasite invades the spleen, liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and skin. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, enlargement of the lymph nodes, the spleen, and the liver, dizziness, weight loss, and secondary infections such as pneumonia, and it can be fatal if left untreated.